technology 2.0

Quantum technology 2.0 timeline

This roadmap cites the key milestones as published in the Quantum Technologies Flagship Final Report, published by the High-Level Steering Committee 28 June 2017.

We are entering an era that we like to refer to as quantum 2.0. Not only are we able to understand the effects of quantum mechanics, we are now also able to actively manipulate individual particles at a quantum level and read out their states in a single shot. This allows us to develop quantum technologies that will enable new applications, spark many new businesses, and may help us solve some of the world’s challenges.

To keep Europe at the forefront of the second quantum revolution now unfolding worldwide, the European Commission announced the Quantum Technology Flag-ship in 2016. They appointed an independent High-Level Steering Committee to deliver a Strategic Research Agenda, an Implementation model and a Governance model for each of the four quantum technologies: quantum communication, quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum sensing and metrology.


The High-Level Steering Committee, “Quantum Technologies Flagship Final Report,” June 2017.


Quantum Communication

Development and certification of quantum random number generator and quantum key distribution devices and systems.

Addressing high-speed, high-technology readiness level, and low deployment costs.

Novel protocols and applications
for network operation.

Development of systems and protocols for quantum repeaters, quantum memories and long-distance communication.

Cost-effective and scalable devices and systems for intercity and intra-city networks that demonstrate end-user-inspired applications.

Scalable solutions for quantum networks that connect devices and systems, e.g. quantum sensors or processors.

Development of autonomous metro-area, long distance (>1000 km) and entanglement-based networks, a ‘quantum internet’.

Protocols that exploit the novel properties that quantum communication offers.

Quantum Computing

Fault tolerant routes for making quantum processors with eventually more than 50 qubits.

Quantum processors fitted with quantum error correction or robust qubits that outperform physical qubits.

Quantum algorithms that demonstrate quantum speed-up and outperform classical computers.

Quantum Simulation

Experimental devices with certified quantum advantage on the scale of more than 50 (processors) or 500 (lattices) individual coupled quantum systems.

Quantum advantage in solving important problems in science (e.g. quantum magnetism).

Quantum optimization (e.g. via quantum annealing).

Prototype quantum simulators that solve problems beyond supercomputer capability, including in quantum chemistry, in the design of new materials, and in optimizing problems such as occurring within the context of artificial intelligence.

Quantum Sensing and Metrology

Quantum sensors, imaging systems and quantum standards that employ single qubit coherence and outperform classical counterparts (resolution, stability) in a laboratory environment.

Integrated quantum sensors, imaging systems and metrology standards at the prototype level, with first commercial products brought to the market.

Laboratory demonstrations of entanglement enhanced technologies in sensing.

Transition from prototypes to commercially available devices.